Prevention of OAB is based on making certain changes in your lifestyle. Eating a healthy high-fibre diet, which reduces risk for constipation, and limiting intake of caffeine and alcohol will reduce the risk of OAB. Limiting your fluid intake before bed will reduce your need to void during the night. If you find that certain medications (e.g., diuretics or water pills) have increased your urge to empty your bladder, you should discuss this with your doctor. Do not stop taking any medications without talking to your doctor.
There are many effective treatments for OAB.
Non-medication treatment options include:
Kegel or pelvic floor retraining exercises – These exercises teach you how to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. By contracting the muscles that support the bladder, you strengthen and tighten the bladder outlet. These exercises need to be done on a regular basis and as discussed with your health professional in order for them to be successful.
Bladder training or bladder drill – By gradually increasing the time between each visit to the bathroom you may be able to train your bladder so that the urge to urinate does not occur as often. Your doctor will provide education on this technique and how to schedule your bathroom visits. While you are doing this, your doctor may ask you to reduce your fluid intake. Always discuss any change of fluid intake with your doctor.
Surgery – Those who don't experience relief from OAB with medications or other treatments may benefit from surgery. Surgery may be aimed at reducing the nerve stimulation that causes the involuntary contractions of the bladder, increasing the size of the bladder, or creating a different pathway for urine to be drained.
Medications* for OAB include:
Antimuscarinic (antispasomodic) medications – These medications reduce the number of involuntary bladder contractions by preventing spasm of the detrusor muscle that causes them, and increase bladder capacity. In general, these medications can reduce leakage of urine caused by OAB by 60% to 75%. Examples of antimuscarinic medications include:
The most common side effects of antimuscarinic medications are dry mouth, dry eyes, increased pressure inside the eye, and constipation. Be sure to tell your doctor about all of the medications you are taking and all of your medical conditions, as there are some people who should not take antimuscarinic medications. These side effects can be minimized bv starting with a low dose of medication and gradually increasing the dose.
Beta3-agonist – This is a new type of medication for the treatment of OAB. It helps relax the detrusor muscle (in the bladder wall) to prevent unwanted spasms that may cause symptoms of OAB. Currently there is only one drug in this category called "mirabegron". An uncommon side effect of mirabegron is an increase in blood pressure. Be sure to tell your doctor about all of the medications you are taking and all of your medical conditions, as there are some people who should not take this medication.
Other medications – Medications known as tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, imipramine) and calcium channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine, diltiazem) have been used with mixed results in the treatment of OAB. They may be prescribed for urinary incontinence, but this is an "off-label" or unapproved use and is not recommended.
For those who cannot tolerate anti-muscarinic medications, botulinum toxin injection may help to decrease urge incontinence.
In some instances of post-menopausal urge incontinence, where women are also experiencing vaginal dryness or discomfort, oral or vaginal estrogen has been used. However, there is currently no evidence to suggest using estrogen for urge incontinence. Talk to your doctor about your individual health needs, other medical conditions, and risk factors for using estrogen (i.e., a history of breast cancer, previous heart attack, or blood clots).
*All medications have both common (generic) and brand names. The brand name is what a specific manufacturer calls the product (e.g., Tylenol®). The common name is the medical name for the medication (e.g., acetaminophen). A medication may have many brand names, but only one common name. This article lists medications by their common names. For information on a given medication, check our Drug Information database. For more information on brand names, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2017. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/condition/getcondition/Overactive-Bladder