Before you begin using a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should use this medication.
Allergic reactions: If you notice signs of a serious allergic reaction (swelling of the face or throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or itchy skin rash), stop using the medication and seek immediate medical attention.
Appearance of insulin: The contents of the vial of insulin glargine should be clear and colourless. Do not use this medication if you notice anything unusual about its appearance, such as cloudiness, discoloration, or clumping.
Blood glucose monitoring: It is important for anyone using insulin to monitor their blood glucose levels regularly, as recommended by their doctor or diabetes educator. It is especially important to test blood glucose more often when your insulin dose or schedule changes, or when you are ill or under stress. If blood tests consistently show high or low blood glucose levels, contact your doctor or diabetes educator.
Changes at injection site: Fatty tissue under the skin at the injection site may shrink or thicken if you inject yourself too often at the same site. To help avoid this effect, change the site with each injection. Talk to your doctor or diabetes educator if you notice your skin pitting or thickening at the injection site.
Changes in insulin requirements: Many things can affect blood glucose levels and insulin requirements. These include:
- certain medical conditions (e.g., infections, thyroid conditions, or kidney or liver disease)
- certain medications that increase or decrease blood glucose levels
- travelling over time zones
It is important your doctor know your current health situation and any changes that may affect the amount of insulin you need. Blood glucose should be monitored regularly as recommended by your doctor or diabetes educator.
Diabetes identification: It is important to either wear a bracelet (or necklace) or carry a card indicating you have diabetes and are taking insulin.
Family and friends: Educate your family and friends about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia (low blood glucose). Keep a glucagon kit available and instruct them on its proper use in case you experience severe low blood glucose and you lose consciousness.
High blood glucose (hyperglycemia): Hyperglycemia may occur if your insulin dose is too low or you miss a dose of insulin. Symptoms of hyperglycemia generally build up over hours or days. If you experience symptoms of hyperglycemia, such as increased need to urinate, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dry mouth, flushed dry skin, loss of appetite, and a fruity odour to your breath, contact your doctor or diabetes educator.
If hyperglycemia is allowed to continue, a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis may occur. In this condition, your body starts to use body fat as fuel, eventually leading to a large concentration of acid in the blood stream. This can result in unconsciousness, coma or death. To prevent this from occurring, you may need to have your insulin dose adjusted.
Kidney function: Kidney disease or reduced kidney function may change the amount of insulin needed by the body. If you have kidney problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Your doctor may want to test your kidney function regularly with blood tests while you are taking this medication.
Liver function: Liver disease or reduced liver function may change the amount of insulin needed by the body. If you have liver problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed. Your doctor may want to test your liver function regularly with blood tests while you are taking this medication.
Low blood glucose (hypoglycemia): Hypoglycemia may occur if too much
insulin is used, if meals are missed, or if you exercise more than usual. Symptoms of mild -to- moderate hypoglycemia may occur suddenly and can include cold sweat, nervousness or shakiness, fast heartbeat, headache, hunger, confusion, lightheadedness, weakness, and numbness or tingling (tongue, lips, or fingers). Mild -to -moderate hypoglycemia may be treated by eating foods or drinks that contain sugar. People taking insulin should always carry a quick source of sugar, such as hard candies, glucose tablets, juice, or regular soft drinks (not diet soft drinks).
Signs of severe hypoglycemia can include disorientation, loss of consciousness, and seizures. People who are unable to take sugar by mouth or who are unconscious may require an injection of glucagon or treatment with intravenous (into the vein) glucose.
Pregnancy: It is essential to maintain good blood glucose control throughout pregnancy. Insulin requirements usually decrease during the first trimester and increase during the second and third trimesters. Therefore, contact your doctor if you are pregnant or are thinking about pregnancy.
Breast-feeding: It is not known if insulin glargine passes into breast milk. If you are a breast-feeding mother and are using this medication, it may affect your baby. Talk to your doctor about whether you should continue breast-feeding. Breast-feeding mothers may require adjustments in insulin dose or diet.
Children: The safety and effectiveness of using this medication has not been established in children under 18 years of age.